8. Cost of Sales and Direct Related Expenses

The following costs have been included in the operating result:

in thousands of EUR

Notes

2015

2014

Direct materials

756,180

651,528

Employee costs

1,038,248

950,858

Depreciation and impairments

13

107,158

96,805

Amortization and impairments

14,15

45,822

40,173

Operating lease

468,247

421,668

Marketing & publicity costs

155,952

149,223

Other costs

284,736

220,826

Total costs

2,856,343

2,531,081

The employee costs can be specified as follows:

in thousands of EUR

Notes

2015

2014

Salaries & wages

745,703

668,082

Social security

164,396

144,611

Pension costs - Defined benefit plans

28

-12,107

7,377

Pension costs - Defined contribution plans

13,366

7,633

Share based payments (LTIP)

30

17,670

34,716

Other employee-related costs

109,220

88,439

1,038,248

950,858

The average number of employees within the Group (excluding associates) in full-time equivalents during 2015 was 27,510 (2014: 25,776).